Grid Computing

Day by day computation, storage, and communication technologies progressively improve and resulting in increasingly large, complex, and resource-intensive applications to be developed both in research institutions and in industry. It is a day-today observation that computational resources are lacking to meet the demand of those applications. The power of network, storage, and computing resources is expected to twofold every 9, 12, and 18 months, respectively. As a result, it is becoming very difficult to meetadequate computational resources for running applications at a single location. Thus developments in wide-area networking make it possible to aggregate distributed resources in several collaborating institutions and to result in the formation of computational service what have come to be known as Computational Grids (or Grids)


Grid Computing is the assemblage of computer resources from various locations to achieve common goal.Grid computing systems work on the standard of pooled resources. Grid computing follows the same concept as to share the load across multiple computers to accomplishing tasks more efficiently and quickly


It is based on a distributed architecture of numerous numbers of computers connected to a common network to solve a complicated problem. In grid computing model, servers or personal computers run autonomous tasks.It is a distributed computing structure to achieve “Virtual Super Computer” and can be seen as a distinct type of parallel computing.Grid computing architecture can bring massive processing power to bear on a problem.The concept of grid computing isn't new. It's a unique kind of distributed computing. In distributed computing, different computers inside the same network utilize one or more resources. But in the ideal grid computing system, every resource is shared, converting a computer network into a powerful supercomputer.

Therefore, grid computing can be understood as a journey along a path of incorporatingvarious technologies and solutions that move us nearer to the final goal. The keyvalues are in the underlying distributed computing set-up, technologiesthat are evolving in maintenance of cross-organizational application and resourcesharing, virtualization means virtualization across technologies, platforms,and organizations.
Types of Grid: 3 types
i. Computer grid or computational service grid
ii. Information grid or Data grid
iii. Enterprise grid
Characteristics:
·         Large scale workability
·         Heterogeneity
·         Geographical distribution
·         Resource sharing
·         Dependable access
·         Resource coordination
·         Collective layer
·         Application layer

Benefits:
·         Exploiting under utilized resources
·         Parallel CPU capacity
·         Virtual resources
·         Virtual organizations for collaboration
·         Access to additional resources
·         Resource balancing
·         Reliability

Problems:
·         No clear standard
·         Lack of grid enabled software
·         Sharing Resources between Various Types of Services
·         Difficult to develop
·         Security issues
·         Limited Area & Applications
·         Management and Administration

The Grid is presently being construct as a collaborativework among many organizations and is already supporting prominent scientific applications.Grid  delivered several existing platforms as the proof of research results in real-world scenarios. Grid computing offers a way to solve grand challenges to unfold and solve such as protein folding, financial modeling,earthquake simulation, and climate disasters or weather modeling. Grids provide a way of using the information technology resources to its maximum inside an organization.But Cloud Computingstand as a threat to the grid computing. The domination of servers in the cloud leaves fewer idle cycles to search again the server-mobile model eradicates underutilized PC desktops. There fore it is interesting to see how Grid computing is evolving and tackle this situation.


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