security and privacy in cloud computing

Data security has consistently been a major issue in information technology. In the cloud computing environment, it becomes particularly serious because the data is located in different places even in all the globe. Data security and privacy protection are the two main factors of user's concerns about the cloud technology. Though many techniques on the topics in cloud computing have been investigated in both academics and industries, data security and privacy protection are becoming more important for the future development of cloud computing technology in government, industry, and business. Data security and privacy protection issues are relevant to both hardware and software in the cloud architecture. This study is to review different security techniques and challenges from both software and hardware aspects for protecting data in the cloud and aims at enhancing the data security and privacy protection for the trustworthy cloud environment.
Cloud computing has been envisioned as the next generation paradigm in computation. In the cloud computing environment, both applications and resources are delivered on demand over the Internet as services. Cloud is an environment of the hardware and software resources in the data centers that provide diverse services over the network or the Internet to satisfy user's requirements 
Cloud Computing is becoming a well-known buzzword nowadays. Many companies, such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft and so on, accelerate their paces in developing Cloud Computing systems and enhancing their services to provide for a larger amount of users. However, security and privacy issues present a strong barrier for users to adapt into Cloud Computing systems. In this paper, we investigate several Cloud Computing system providers about their concerns on security and privacy issues. We find those concerns are not adequate and more should be added in terms of five aspects (i.e., availability, confidentiality, data integrity, control, audit) for security. Moreover, released acts on privacy are out of date to protect users' private information in the new environment (i.e., Cloud Computing system environment) since they are no longer applicable to the new relationship between users and providers, which contains three parties (i.e., Cloud service user, Cloud service provider/Cloud user, Cloud provider). Multi located data storage and services (i.e., applications) in the Cloud make privacy issues even worse. Hence, adapting released acts for new scenarios in the Cloud, it will result in more users to step into Cloud. We claim that the prosperity in Cloud Computing literature is to be coming after those security and privacy issues having be resolved.
Cloud computing can mean different things to different people, and obviously the privacy and security concerns will differ between a consumer using a public cloud application, a medium-sized enterprise using a customized suite of business applications on a cloud platform, and a government agency with a private cloud for internal database sharing (Whitten, 2010). The shift of each category of user to cloud systems brings a different package of benefits and risks.
What remains constant, though, is the tangible and intangible value that the user seeks to protect. For an individual, the value at risk can range from loss of civil liberties to the contents of bank accounts. For a business, the value runs from core trade secrets to continuity of business operations and public reputation. Much of this is hard to estimate and translate into standard metrics of value (Lev, 2003) The task in this transition is to compare the opportunities of cloud adoption with the risks. The benefits of cloud have been discussed elsewhere, to the individual to the enterprise, and to the government (West, 2010a, 2010b).
Data Protection and Privacy legislation is not even similar in many countries around the globe yet Cloud Computing is a global service of the future. Consequently the problems and risks that affect data  protection rules in Europe must be considered properly when Cloud Computing platforms are located on servers in non-European countries. 


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